Heriot-Watt Mathematics Report Series
HWM07-1, 3 Jan 2007
Crust Density in Bread Baking: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Solutions
D R Jefferson, A A Lacey and P A Sadd
A model for the formation of a ``crust'' during bread baking is presented. The crust is the outermost part of the loaf where the final bread density is significantly higher than in the ``crumb'', the interior of the loaf. The model is based on a collapse mechanism, whereby raised pressures due to thermal expansion and water evaporation squash bubbles in the bread as the dough sets and fractures; the latter process allows vapour within bubbles to escape.
A preliminary analysis of some aspects of the model and an indication of the numerical solution are also presented. Fuller results and their implications for bread manufacture will be given in a second paper.
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